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Panta Rei


Panta Rei

FF System - compact waste water plant


A Quality Product from
Panta Rei [View Profile]
padova - Italy

Description :
The FF treatment (see Fig.) puts together, in a single device, the operations of oils and fats removal, biological oxidation and sedimentation.
The wastewater sent to this equipment and first goes through a floatation process, a dissolved air floatation (DAF). This kind of treatment plant is used for the primary or secondary water treatment, with excellent results. The DAF is a process where an elevated number of air bubbles is introduced in a liquid mass that is to be treated.
The air bubbles have a diameter between 50 and 80 ?m. The bubbles, thanks to their small size, adhere to the solid particle thus modifying its specific gravity down to values of 0.4 ? 0.6; therefore the flake is pushed upwards due to the Archimedes force and reaches the liquid surface creating a stable foam layer. It is necessary to emphasize the importance of the bubbles size regarding the average volume of the flakes, they have to be of the same order of magnitude so that the bubble stays adhered to the solid particle during all the way towards the liquid surface; in fact, if the bubble were much bigger than the flake the speed upwards would be too high and it would break up the solid agglomerate thus decreasing the solids removal efficiency. Due to the aforementioned cause, the air flow sent and the introduction conditions have to be determined carefully, in order to obtain the aeration characteristics that better suit the kind of wastewater that is to be treated. In the dissolved air floatation process, the air is introduced in the liquid mass through a pressurized recirculation process, which is able to obtain an optimal saturation of the recirculation flow, in order to guarantee the continuity and homogeneity of the treatment yield. The saturation system is generally fed by a fraction of the clarified flow, the working pressure is about 4-5bars and the saturation level reached is about 90%. The working flow can be regulated between 20% and 100% of the nominal capacity of the equipment.
During the floatation process, a moving blade collects and removes the surface foam, where the floated polluting substances are retained.
The floatation process, besides removing efficiently the non settleable suspended solids, decreases the COD, BOD as well as the natural or synthetic oils and fats, surfactants and solvents.
Following the floatation phase, according to the fluid dynamics of the equipment, the wastewater is sent to the biological oxidation section, which is located in the central part of the equipment. During this procedure, as in a regular activated sludge treatment system, most of the pollutants of the wastewater in the settleable and non settleable suspended solids are removed. The biological treatment section is of the immobilized biomass type, this technical solution allows a close contact between the pollutant and the microorganism, allowing high pollutant removal yields. The biomass is retained inside the device thanks to the presence of a polymeric packs layer, having such superficial porosity characteristics to allow the adhesion of the microorganisms. As in all the immobilized biomass process, thanks to the packs presence, the biomass undergoes a ?filming? process, where only the active microorganisms stay adhered to the support and the deceased fraction is automatically washed away from the plant. Besides the adhered biomass a disperse biomass is formed, which is able to assimilate the substances which are not retained by the immobilized fraction. The microorganisms mass that leaves the packs, which consists on adhered mass that is not active anymore and disperse biomass, is routed to the bottom of the equipment, assimilating sediments. The biological purification stage is able to work under aerobic conditions without a specific aeration system, since the floated liquid mass has an oxygenation level which is high enough as to allow the performance of the metabolic processes of the microorganisms.
The biological treatment system foresees a partial sludge recirculation, of about 20% of the total mass, this way the wash out is avoided and important nutrients are provided to the active biomass. The nutrients that are reintegrated through the recirculation are originated mainly through the cellular lysis of the deceased biomass released during the aforementioned filming process. The wastewater put through the biological purification process, at the end of it, is sent to the packed bed filtration process.
The settleable solids that escape the floatation phase and go through the biological purification stage are sent by gravity to the bottom of the device, in this section a sedimentation process takes place, which includes both the aforementioned solids and the biomass that was released from the layer / support. The sediments mass is removed from the device through a sludge extraction system and, as described before, 20% of it is recycled to the biological treatment section, while the remaining 80% of the sediments is sent to the sludge treatment line and disposed of according to the nature of the sediment.

Terms and Conditions :
The equipments, under normal maintenance, will be guaranteed for 2 years as the European standards

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Panta Rei

We design and build water treatment plants for urban and industrial uses, with decades of experience especially in the urban, textile, paper and tannery sectors and in the water preparation for its productive use.

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