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PRESSURE & FLOW CONTROL INDUSTRIES [View Profile]
Vadodara - India
WHY USE FLAME ARRESTER: Many processes involve the transportation of potentially flammable or explosive gases or vapors through varying lengths of pipe. Where there is potential for ignition, suitable measures need to be taken to ensure that in the event of these materials igniting, damage to plant is minimized.
The most effective methods of quenching such flames is to install flame arrester either at a strategic point along the pipe , or at the end of pipeline where materials are being vented into the atmosphere.
IMPORTANCE OF FLAME ARRESTER: Flame Arrester are designed to protect the tank by preventing the flame propagation & explosion in the tank.The Flame Arrester element dissipates the heat of flame below the ignition point of the vapors.
When the storage tank contain liquids having flash point lower than the possible tank temperature Flame Arrester are recommended.
Flame Arresters, when properly applied are effective, passive device against the propagation of flame front. The function of flame arrester is to restrict the transmission of flame front from the unprotected side to the protected side of device.
HOW DOES FLAME ARRESTER WORK: Pre’con Flame Arrestors are passive devices with no moving parts. They prevent the propagation of flame from the exposed side of the unit to the protected side by the use of wound crimped metal ribbon type flame cell element,. This construction produces a matrix of uniform openings that are carefully constructed to quench the flame by absorbing the heat of the flame. This provides an extinguishing barrier to the ignited vapor mixture.
Under normal operating conditions the Flame Arrester permits a relatively free flow of gas or vapor through the piping system. If the mixture is ignited and the flame begins to travel back through the piping, the arrestor will prohibit the flame from moving back to the gas source.
The type of gas in the system determines its gas grouping and therefore predetermines the type of arrestor element required. The element must be designed to accommodate the specific gas group that could possibly ignite and propagate in the system. The more explosive gases require the flame cell channel to absorb the heat more quickly and efficiently.
FLAME PROPAGATION: The differences between the various types of flame arrestors are based mainly on the nature of the flame which is expected (especially how fast it moves) and on the expected intensity of the pressure pulse created by the flame. A flame is a volume of gas in which a self – sustaining exothermic (heat – producing ) chemical reaction is occurring. The reaction is presumed to be oxidation, also known as combustion.
To have a flame, three things must be present, oxygen (supplied by air), very high temperature (initially supplied by an ignition source) and a flammable gas mixed with the air in suitable proportions called a combustible mixture. So long as these requirements remain available, a flame can burn indefinitely. Flame arrestors operate by removing one of these requirements, high temperature.
In a stationary flammable mixture, a flame seems to move toward the unburned gas, leaving combustion products behind. That apparent motion is called flame propagation. The flame exists only within a relatively narrow volume at the boundary between the unburned gas and the combustion products.
The speed at which the flame propagates is measured at the front edge of the flame. This speed depends on several variables, including the speed of the chemical reaction, the air – to – gas mixture ratio, and whether the flame is confined or unconfined.
Product Applications :
* Storage tank vents
* Offshore drilling platform vents
* Oil/Petrochemical refineries
* Flare stacks
* Pulp and paper NCG processing
* Vapor incineration systems
* Chemical processing plants
* Marine loading systems
* Natural gas supply lines
* Vapor recovery systems
* Landfill gas incineration
* Sewage treatment vapor processing
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